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内置函数进制转换的用法,函数怎么用

发布时间:2019-08-31 22:36编辑:美高梅开户浏览(182)

    python 中的int()函数怎么用,pythonint

    int(x, [base])

    功能:

    函数的作用是将一个数字或base类型的字符串转换成整数。

    函数原型:

    int(x=0)
    int(x, base=10),base缺省值为10,也就是说不指定base的值时,函数将x按十进制处理。

    适用Python版本:

    Python2.x
    Python3.x

    注意:

    1. x 可以是数字或字符串,但是base被赋值后 x 只能是字符串
    2. x 作为字符串时必须是 base 类型,也就是说 x 变成数字时必须能用 base 进制表示

    Python英文文档解释:

    class int(x=0)
    class int(x, base=10)
    Return an integer object constructed from a number or string x, or return 0 if no arguments are given. If x is a number, return x.__int__(). For floating point numbers, this truncates towards zero.
    If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string, bytes, or bytearray instance representing an integer literal in radix base. Optionally, the literal can be preceded by or - (with no space in between) and surrounded by whitespace. A base-n literal consists of the digits 0 to n-1, with a to z (or A to Z) having values 10 to 35. The default base is 10. The allowed values are 0 and 2–36. Base-2, -8, and -16 literals can be optionally prefixed with 0b/0B, 0o/0O, or 0x/0X, as with integer literals in code. Base 0 means to interpret exactly as a code literal, so that the actual base is 2, 8, 10, or 16, and so that int('010', 0) is not legal, while int('010') is, as well as int('010', 8).
    The integer type is described in Numeric Types — int, float, complex.
    Changed in version 3.4: If base is not an instance of int and the base object has a base.__index__ method, that method is called to obtain an integer for the base. Previous versions used base.__int__ instead of base.__index__.
    Changed in version 3.6: Grouping digits with underscores as in code literals is allowed.

    代码实例:

    1. x 是数字的情况:

    int(3.14)      # 3
    int(2e2)       # 200
    int(100, 2)     # 出错,base 被赋值后函数只接收字符串
    

    2. x 是字符串的情况:

    int('23', 16)   # 35
    int('Pythontab', 8)   # 出错,Pythontab不是个8进制数
    
    1. base 可取值范围是 2~36,囊括了所有的英文字母(不区分大小写),十六进制中F表示15,那么G将在二十进制中表示16,依此类推....Z在三十六进制中表示35

      int('FZ', 16) # 出错,FZ不能用十六进制表示 int('FZ', 36) # 575

    2. 字符串 0x 可以出现在十六进制中,视作十六进制的符号,同理 0b 可以出现在二进制中,除此之外视作数字 0 和字母 x

      int('0x10', 16) # 16,0x是十六进制的符号 int('0x10', 17) # 出错,'0x10'中的 x 被视作英文字母 x int('0x10', 36) # 42804,36进制包含字母 x

    总结

    以上所述是小编给大家介绍python 中的int()函数,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的。在此也非常感谢大家对帮客之家网站的支持!

    中的int()函数怎么用,pythonint int(x, [base]) 功能: 函数的作用是将一个数字或base类型的字符串转换成整数。 函数原型: int(x=0) int(x,...

    使用Python内置函数:bin()、oct()、int()、hex()可实现进制转换。

    先看Python官方文档中对这几个内置函数的描述:

    bin(x)
    Convert an integer number to a binary string. The result is a valid Python expression. If x is not a Python int object, it has to define an __index__() method that returns an integer.

    oct(x)
    Convert an integer number to an octal string. The result is a valid Python expression. If x is not a Python int object, it has to define an __index__() method that returns an integer.

    int([number | string[, base]])
    Convert a number or string to an integer. If no arguments are given, return 0. If a number is given, return number.__int__(). Conversion of floating point numbers to integers truncates towards zero. A string must be a base-radix integer literal optionally preceded by ‘ ' or ‘-‘ (with no space in between) and optionally surrounded by whitespace. A base-n literal consists of the digits 0 to n-1, with ‘a' to ‘z' (or ‘A' to ‘Z') having values 10 to 35. The default base is 10. The allowed values are 0 and 2-36. Base-2, -8, and -16 literals can be optionally prefixed with 0b/0B, 0o/0O, or 0x/0X, as with integer literals in code. Base 0 means to interpret exactly as a code literal, so that the actual base is 2, 8, 10, or 16, and so that int('010', 0) is not legal, while int('010') is, as well as int('010', 8).

    hex(x)
    Convert an integer number to a hexadecimal string. The result is a valid Python expression. If x is not a Python int object, it has to define an __index__() method that returns an integer.

    2进制 8进制 10进制 16进制
    2进制 - bin(int(x, 8)) bin(int(x, 10)) bin(int(x, 16))
    8进制 oct(int(x, 2)) - oct(int(x, 10)) oct(int(x, 16))
    10进制 int(x, 2) int(x, 8) - int(x, 16)
    16进制 hex(int(x, 2)) hex(int(x, 8)) hex(int(x, 10)) -

    bin()、oct()、hex()的返回值均为字符串,且分别带有0b、0o、0x前缀。

    Python进制转换(二进制、十进制和十六进制)实例

    #!/usr/bin/env python
    # -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
    # 2/10/16 base trans. wrote by srcdog on 20th, April, 2009
    # ld elements in base 2, 10, 16.
    
    import os,sys
    
    # global definition
    # base = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F]
    base = [str(x) for x in range(10)]   [ chr(x) for x in range(ord('A'),ord('A') 6)]
    
    # bin2dec
    # 二进制 to 十进制: int(str,n=10) 
    def bin2dec(string_num):
     return str(int(string_num, 2))
    
    # hex2dec
    # 十六进制 to 十进制
    def hex2dec(string_num):
     return str(int(string_num.upper(), 16))
    
    # dec2bin
    # 十进制 to 二进制: bin() 
    def dec2bin(string_num):
     num = int(string_num)
     mid = []
     while True:
     if num == 0: break
     num,rem = divmod(num, 2)
     mid.append(base[rem])
    
     return ''.join([str(x) for x in mid[::-1]])
    
    # dec2hex
    # 十进制 to 八进制: oct() 
    # 十进制 to 十六进制: hex() 
    def dec2hex(string_num):
     num = int(string_num)
     mid = []
     while True:
     if num == 0: break
     num,rem = divmod(num, 16)
     mid.append(base[rem])
    
     return ''.join([str(x) for x in mid[::-1]])
    
    # hex2tobin
    # 十六进制 to 二进制: bin(int(str,16)) 
    def hex2bin(string_num):
     return dec2bin(hex2dec(string_num.upper()))
    
    # bin2hex
    # 二进制 to 十六进制: hex(int(str,2)) 
    def bin2hex(string_num):
     return dec2hex(bin2dec(string_num))
    

    以下代码用于实现十进制转二进制、八进制、十六进制:

    # -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
    
    # Filename : test.py
    # author by : www.jb51.net
    
    # 获取用户输入十进制数
    dec = int(input("输入数字:"))
    
    print("十进制数为:", dec)
    print("转换为二进制为:", bin(dec))
    print("转换为八进制为:", oct(dec))
    print("转换为十六进制为:", hex(dec))
    

    执行以上代码输出结果为:

    python3 test.py
    输入数字:5
    十进制数为:5
    转换为二进制为: 0b101
    转换为八进制为: 0o5
    转换为十六进制为: 0x5

    python3 test.py
    输入数字:12
    十进制数为:12
    转换为二进制为: 0b1100
    转换为八进制为: 0o14
    转换为十六进制为: 0xc

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