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并配置yum源的优先级,并配置Yum源的优先级

发布时间:2019-08-29 13:38编辑:服务器运维浏览(198)

    CentOS配置本地yum源/阿里云yum源/163yuan源,并配置yum源的优先级,centos163yuan

    一、用Centos镜像搭建本地Yum源

    由于安装centos后的默认Yum源为centos的官方地址,所以在国内使用很慢甚至无法访问,所以一般的做法都是把默认的Yum源替换成aliyun的Yum源或者163等国内的Yum源(下文介绍如何配置)。
    但是以上的方法都是需要网络的,当没有网络的时候就无法使用了,所以还有一个常用的方法就是用Centos的ISO镜像搭建本地Yum源,这样安装软件的速度就会飞快,缺点是可能有些包没有。

    1. 安装Centos后默认的Yum源如下
    [root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 32
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-CR.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  649 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  290 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  630 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Media.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Vault.repo
    
    1. 把默认Yum源备份(可选)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/
    
    1. 在虚拟机上挂载CentOS镜像文件
    ![](https://upload-images.jianshu.io/upload_images/2640591-51a1e9598dd31898)
    
    挂载ISO镜像
    
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /opt/centos
    mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
    
    1. 编写repo文件并指向镜像的挂载目录
    [root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo  
    [local]
    name=local
    baseurl=file:///opt/centos
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0
    
    1. 清除缓存
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: local
    Cleaning up everything
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache        //把Yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum list        //列出了3780个包
    

    一、用Centos镜像搭建本地yum源

    由于安装centos后的默认yum源为centos的官方地址,所以在国内使用很慢甚至无法访问,所以一般的做法都是把默认的yum源替换成aliyun的yum源或者163等国内的yum源(下文介绍如何配置)。
    但是以上的方法都是需要网络的,当没有网络的时候就无法使用了,所以还有一个常用的方法就是用Centos的iso镜像搭建本地yum源,这样安装软件的速度就会飞快,缺点是可能有些包没有。

    二、把默认的CentOS Yum源修改成国内的aliyun Yum源

    阿里云官方教程:http://mirrors.aliyun.com/help/centos

    1. 安装Centos后默认的Yum源如下
    [root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 32
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-CR.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  649 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  290 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  630 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Media.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Vault.repo
    
    1. 把默认Yum源备份(可选)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/
    
    1. 下载aliyun Yum源repo文件(对应自己的系统版本下载即可)
    #各系统版本repo文件对应的下载操作
    CentOS 5
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-5.repo
    CentOS 6
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.repo
    CentOS 7
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    
    [root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release        //查看系统的版本
    CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    --2017-06-20 06:43:08--  http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    Resolving mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)... 112.124.140.210, 115.28.122.210
    Connecting to mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)|112.124.140.210|:80... connected.
    HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
    Length: 2573 (2.5K) [application/octet-stream]
    Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’
    100%[=======================================================================================================>] 2,573       --.-K/s   in 0s      
    2017-06-20 06:43:08 (118 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’ saved [2573/2573]
    
    1. 清除缓存
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: base extras updates
    Cleaning up everything
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache        //把Yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum list        //总共列出了9954个包
    

    1.安装Centos后默认的yum源如下

    [[email protected] ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 32
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-CR.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  649 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  290 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  630 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Media.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Vault.repo
    

    三、把默认的CentOS Yum源修改成国内的163源

    163官方教程:http://mirrors.163.com/.help/centos.html

    1. 安装Centos后默认的Yum源如下
    [root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 32
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-CR.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  649 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  290 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  630 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Media.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Vault.repo
    
    1. 把默认Yum源备份(可选)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/
    
    1. 下载163 Yum源repo文件
    #各系统版本repo文件对应的下载操作
    CentOS 5
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS5-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS5-Base-163.repo
    CentOS 6
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS6-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS6-Base-163.repo
    CentOS 7
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
    
    [root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release        //查看系统的版本
    CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
    --2017-06-20 06:29:47--  http://mirrors.163.com/.help/CentOS7-Base-163.repo
    Resolving mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)... 123.58.173.185, 123.58.173.186
    Connecting to mirrors.163.com (mirrors.163.com)|123.58.173.185|:80... connected.
    HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
    Length: 1572 (1.5K) [application/octet-stream]
    Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo’
    100%[=======================================================================================================>] 1,572       --.-K/s   in 0s      
    2017-06-20 06:29:47 (293 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS7-Base-163.repo’ saved [1572/1572]
    
    1. 清除缓存
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: base extras updates
    Cleaning up everything
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache        //把Yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum list        //总共列出了9951个包
    

    2.把默认yum源备份(可选)

    [root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/
    

    四、修改Yum源的优先级

    当既有本地Yum源又有163源的时候,我们在装软件包的时候当然希望先用本地的Yum源去安装,本地找不到可用的包时再使用163源去安装软件,这里就涉及到了优先级的问题,Yum提供的插件yum-plugin-priorities.noarch可以解决这个问题

    1. 查看系统是否安装了优先级的插件
    [root@kangvcar ~]# rpm -qa | grep yum-plugin-
    yum-plugin-fastestmirror-1.1.31-34.el7.noarch        
    //这里看到没有安装yum-plugin-priorities.noarch这个插件
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum search yum-plugin-priorities        
    //用search查看是否有此插件可用
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile
    * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
    * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
    * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
    ====================================================== N/S matched: yum-plugin-priorities =======================================================
    yum-plugin-priorities.noarch : plugin to give priorities to packages from different repos
    
    1. 安装yum-plugin-priorities.noarch插件
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install yum-plugin-priorities.noarch
    
    1. 查看插件是否启用
    [root@kangvcar ~]# cat /etc/yum/pluginconf.d/priorities.conf
    [main]
    enabled = 1
    //1为启用;0为禁用
    
    1. 修改本地Yum源优先使用
    [root@kangvcar ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 8
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 2573 May 15  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root   67 Jun 20 06:04 local.repo
    //有两个repo文件
    [root@kangvcar ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo
    [local]
    name=local
    baseurl=file:///opt/centos
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0
    priority=1
    //在原基础上加入priority=1 ;数字越小优先级越高
    //可以继续修改其他源的priority值,经测试仅配置本地源的优先级为priority=1就会优先使用本地源了
    
    1. 测试
    配置优先级前:(使用阿里云Yum源)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
    Dependencies Resolved
    =================================================================================================================================================
    Package                            Arch                         Version                                     Repository                     Size
    =================================================================================================================================================
    Installing:
    vim-enhanced                       x86_64                       2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1                         updates                       1.0 M
    Updating for dependencies:
    vim-common                         x86_64                       2:7.4.160-1.el7_3.1                         updates                       5.9 M
    省略···
    
    配置优先级后:(使用本地Yum源)
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum -y install vim
    Dependencies Resolved
    =================================================================================================================================================
    Package                                     Arch                        Version                                Repository                  Size
    =================================================================================================================================================
    Installing:
    vim-enhanced                                x86_64                      2:7.4.160-1.el7                        local                      1.0 M
    Installing for dependencies:
    gpm-libs                                    x86_64                      1.20.7-5.el7                           local                       32 k
    perl                                        x86_64                      4:5.16.3-286.el7                       local                      8.0 M
    perl-Carp                                   noarch                      1.26-244.el7                           local                       19 k
    perl-Encode                                 x86_64                      2.51-7.el7                             local                      1.5 M
    perl-Exporter                               noarch                      5.68-3.el7                             local                       28 k
    perl-File-Path                              noarch                      2.09-2.el7                             local                       26 k
    perl-File-Temp                              noarch                      0.23.01-3.el7                          local                       56 k
    省略···
    

    3.在虚拟机上挂载CentOS镜像文件

    [root@kangvcar ~]# mount -t iso9660 /dev/sr0 /opt/centos
    mount: /dev/sr0 is write-protected, mounting read-only
    

    4.编写repo文件并指向镜像的挂载目录

    [[email protected] ~]# vi /etc/yum.repos.d/local.repo  
    [local]
    name=local
    baseurl=file:///opt/centos
    enabled=1
    gpgcheck=0
    

    5.清除缓存

    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: local
    Cleaning up everything
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache        //把yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum list        //列出了3780个包
    

    二、把默认的CentOS yum源修改成国内的aliyun yum源

    阿里云官方教程:

    1.安装Centos后默认的yum源如下

    [[email protected] ~]# ll /etc/yum.repos.d/
    total 32
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1664 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Base.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1309 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-CR.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  649 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Debuginfo.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  290 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-fasttrack.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root  630 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Media.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1331 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Sources.repo
    -rw-r--r--. 1 root root 1952 Dec  9  2015 CentOS-Vault.repo
    

    2.把默认yum源备份(可选)

    [root@kangvcar ~]# mkdir /opt/centos-yum.bak
    [root@kangvcar ~]# mv /etc/yum.repos.d/* /opt/centos-yum.bak/
    

    3.下载aliyun yum源repo文件(对应自己的系统版本下载即可)

    #各系统版本repo文件对应的下载操作
    CentOS 5
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-5.repo
    CentOS 6
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.repo
    CentOS 7
    wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    
    [[email protected] ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release        //查看系统的版本
    CentOS Linux release 7.2.1511 (Core)
    [[email protected] ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    --2017-06-20 06:43:08--  http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo
    Resolving mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)... 112.124.140.210, 115.28.122.210
    Connecting to mirrors.aliyun.com (mirrors.aliyun.com)|112.124.140.210|:80... connected.
    HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
    Length: 2573 (2.5K) [application/octet-stream]
    Saving to: ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’
    100%[=======================================================================================================>] 2,573       --.-K/s   in 0s      
    2017-06-20 06:43:08 (118 MB/s) - ‘/etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo’ saved [2573/2573]
    

    4.清除缓存

    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum clean all
    Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
    Cleaning repos: base extras updates
    Cleaning up everything
    Cleaning up list of fastest mirrors
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum makecache        //把yum源缓存到本地,加快软件的搜索好安装速度
    [root@kangvcar ~]# yum list        //总共列出了9954个包
    

    本文由美高梅开户发布于服务器运维,转载请注明出处:并配置yum源的优先级,并配置Yum源的优先级

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